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Robots Meta Tag & X‑Robots-Tag: Everything You Need to Know

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Michal is an SEO specialist turned into a marketing generalist. He speaks Chinese, loves to eat Japanese dishes and drink Belgian beers. Combining the unthinkable is also sometimes reflected in his marketing efforts.

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    Guiding search engines to crawl and index your website the way you want can be a challenging task. While robots.txt manages the accessibility of your content to crawlers, it doesn’t tell them whether they should index the content or not.

    That’s what robots meta tags and the x‑robots-tag HTTP header are for.

    Let’s get one thing straight from the beginning. You can’t control indexation with robots.txt. That’s a common misconception.

    The noindex rule in robots.txt was never officially supported by Google. And in July 2019, it was officially deprecated.

    In this guide, you’ll learn:

    What is a robots meta tag?

    A robots meta tag is an HTML snippet that tells search engines how to crawl or index a certain page. It’s placed into the <head> section of a web page, and looks like this:

    <meta name="robots" content="noindex" />

    Why is the robots meta tag important for SEO?

    The meta robots tag is commonly used to prevent pages showing up in search results, although it does have other uses (more on those later).

    There are various types of content that you might want to prevent search engines from indexing:

    • Thin pages with little or no value for the user;
    • Pages in the staging environment;
    • Admin and thank-you pages;
    • Internal search results;
    • PPC landing pages;
    • Pages about upcoming promotions, contests or product launches;
    • Duplicate content (use canonical tags to suggest the best version for indexing);

    Generally, the bigger your website is, the more you’ll deal with managing crawlability and indexation. You also want Google and other search engines to crawl and index your pages as efficiently as possible. Correctly combining page-level directives with robots.txt and sitemaps is crucial for SEO.

    What are the values and attributes of a robots meta tag?

    Robots meta tags consist of two attributes: name and content.

    You must specify values for each of these attributes. Let’s explore what these are.

    The name attribute and user-agent values

    The name attribute specifies which crawlers should follow these instructions. This value is also known as a user-agent (UA) because crawlers need to be identified with their UA to request a page. Your UA reflects the browser you’re using, but Google’s user-agents are, for example, Googlebot or Googlebot-image.

    The UA value “robots” applies to all crawlers. You can also add as many robots meta tags into the <head> section as you need. For example, if you want to prevent your images from showing up in a Google or Bing image search, add the following meta tags:

    <meta name="googlebot-image" content="noindex" />

    <meta name="MSNBot-Media" content="noindex" />

    Sidenote.
    Both name and content attributes are non-case sensitive. “Googlebot-Image,” “msnbot-media” and “Noindex” attributes also work for the examples above.

    The content attribute and crawling/indexing directives

    The content attribute provides instructions on how to crawl and index information on the page. If there is no robots meta tag available, crawlers interpret it as index and follow. That gives them permission to show the page in search results and crawl all links on the page (unless stated otherwise with the rel=”nofollow” tag).

    The following are the supported values for the content attribute by Google:

    all

    The default value of “index, follow”, no need to ever use this directive.

    <meta name="robots" content="all" />

    noindex

    Instructs search engines not to index the page. That prevents it from showing in search results.

    <meta name="robots" content="noindex" />

    nofollow

    Stops robots from crawling all links on the page. Please note that those URLs still may be indexable, especially if they have backlinks pointing to them.

    <meta name="robots" content="nofollow" />

    none

    The combination of noindex, nofollow. Avoid using this as other search engines (e.g., Bing) don’t support this.

    <meta name="robots" content="none" />

    noarchive

    Prevents Google from showing a cached copy of the page in the SERP.

    <meta name="robots" content="noarchive" />

    notranslate

    Prevents Google from offering a translation of the page in the SERP.

    <meta name="robots" content="notranslate" />

    noimageindex

    Prevents Google from indexing images embedded on the page.

    <meta name="robots" content="noimageindex" />

    unavailable_after:

    Tells Google not to show a page in search results after a specified date/time. Basically a noindex directive with a timer. The date/time must be specified using the RFC 850 format.

    <meta name="robots" content="unavailable_after: Sunday, 01-Sep-19 12:34:56 GMT" />

    nosnippet

    Opts out of all text and video snippets within the SERP. It also works as noarchive at the same time.

    <meta name="robots" content="nosnippet" />

    IMPORTANT NOTE

    Since October 2019, Google offers more granular options to control if and how you want to display your snippets in the search results. This is in part due to the European Copyright Directive, which was first implemented by France with its new copyright law.

    Crucially, this legislation already affects all website owners. How? Because Google no longer displays snippets (text, image or video) from your site to users in France unless you opt-in using their new robots meta tags.

    We discuss how each of these new tags works below. That said, if this concerns your business and you’re looking for a quick solution, add the following HTML snippet to every page on your site to tell Google that you want no restrictions on your snippets:

    <meta name="robots" content=”max-snippet:-1, max-image-preview:large, max-video-preview:-1" />

    Note that if you use Yoast SEO, this piece of code is added automatically on every page unless you added noindex or nosnippet directives.

    max-snippet:

    Specifies a maximum number of characters Google can show in their text snippets. Using 0 will opt out of the text snippets, ‑1 declares no limit on the text preview.

    The following tag will set up the limit to 160 characters (similar to standard meta description length):

    <meta name="robots" content="max-snippet:160" />

    max-image-preview:

    Tells Google if and how big an image it can use for image snippets. This directive has three possible values:

    • none no image snippet will be shown
    • standard — a default image preview may be shown
    • large — the largest possible image preview may  ‑be shown

    <meta name="robots" content="max-image-preview:large" />

    max-video-preview:

    Sets up a maximum number of seconds for a video snippet. As with the text snippet, 0 will opt out completely, ‑1 places no limits.

    The following tag would allow Google to show maximum of 15 seconds:

    <meta name="robots" content="max-video-preview:15" />

    a quick note on using a data-nosnippet HTML attribute

    Alongside the new robots directives introduced in October 2019, Google also introduced the data-nosnippet HTML attribute. You can use this to tag parts of text that you don’t want Google to use as a snippet.

    This can be done in HTML on div, span, and section elements. The data-nosnippet is considered a boolean attribute, meaning that it’s valid with or without a value.

    <p>This is some text in a paragraph that can be shown as a snippet<span data-nosnippet>excluding this part</span></p>
    
    <div data-nosnippet>This will not appear in a snippet</div><div data-nosnippet="true">And neither will this</div>
    

    Using these directives

    Most SEOs don’t need to go beyond the noindex and nofollow directives, but it’s good to know that there are other options as well. Keep in mind that all directives listed above are supported by Google.

    Let’s check the comparison with Bing:

    DirectiveGoogleBing
    all
    noindex
    nofollow
    none
    noarchive
    nosnippet
    max-snippet:
    max-image-preview:
    max-video-preview:
    notranslate
    noimageindex
    unavailable_after:

    You can use multiple directives at once and combine them. But if they conflict (e.g., “noindex, index”) or one is a subset of another (e.g., “noindex, noarchive”), Google will use the most restrictive one. In these cases, it would be just “noindex”.

    Sidenote.
     Snippet directives may be overridden by structured data that allows Google to use any information within the annotation. If you want to prevent Google from showing snippets, adjust the annotation accordingly and make sure that you don’t have any license agreement with Google.
    A note on other directives

    You might also come across directives that are specific to other search engines. An example would be “noyaca” which prevents Yandex from using its own directory for generating search results snippets.

    Others may have been useful and used in the past but are already deprecated. For example, the “noodp” directive was used to prevent search engines from using the Open Directory Project for generating snippets.

    How to set up the robots meta tag

    Now that you know what all these directives do and look like, it’s time to get to the actual implementation on your website.

    Robots meta tags belong into the <head>  section of a page. It’s pretty straightforward if you edit the code using HTML editors such as Notepad++ or Brackets. But what if you’re using a CMS with SEO plugins?

    Let’s focus on the most popular option out there.

    Implementing robots meta tags in WordPress using Yoast SEO

    Go to the “Advanced” section below the editing block of each post or page. Set up the robots meta tag according to your needs. The following settings would implement “noindex, nofollow” directives.

    Screenshot 2019 09 02 at 21.51.32 1

    The “Meta robots advanced” row gives you the option to implement directives other than noindex and nofollow, such as noimageindex.

    You also have the option to apply these directives sitewide. Go to “Search Appearance” in the Yoast menu. There you can set up meta robots tags on all posts, pages, or just on specific taxonomies or archives.
    Screenshot 2019 09 02 at 21.45.25 1

    Sidenote.
    Yoast isn’t the only way to control meta robots tags in WordPress. There are plenty of other WordPress SEO plugins with similar functionality.

    What is an X‑Robots-Tag?

    The robots meta tag is fine for implementing noindex directives on HTML pages here and there. But what if you want to prevent search engines from indexing files such as images or PDFs? This is when x‑robots-tags come into play.

    The X‑Robots-Tag is an HTTP header sent from a web server. Unlike the meta robots tag, it isn’t placed in the HTML of the page. Here’s what it can look like:

    x robots tag 1

    Checking HTTP headers is a bit more complicated. You can do it the old way in the Developer Tools or use a browser extension like ‘Live HTTP Headers.’

    The Live HTTP Headers extension monitors all HTTP(S) traffic your browser sends (request headers) and receives (response headers). It’s captured live, so make sure the plugin is activated. Then go to the page or file that you want to inspect and check the plugin for the logs. It looks like this:

    livehttpheaders 1

    How to set up the X‑Robots-Tag

    The configuration depends on the type of web server you’re using and which pages or files you want to keep out of the index.

    The line of code look like this:

    Header set X-Robots-Tag “noindex”

    This example takes into account the most widespread server type—Apache. The most practical way of adding the HTTP header is by modifying the main configuration file (usually httpd.conf) or .htaccess files. Sounds familiar? This is the place where redirects also happen.

    You use the same values and directives for the x‑robots-tag as a meta robots tag. That said, implementing these changes should be left for the experienced. Backups are your friends because even a small syntax error can break the whole website.

    PRO TIP

    If you use a CDN that supports serverless applications for Edge SEO, you can modify both robots meta tags and X‑Robots-Tags on the edge server without making changes to the underlying codebase.

    When to use the robots meta tag vs. x‑robots-tag?

    While adding an HTML snippet looks like the easiest and most straightforward option, it falls short in some cases.

    Non-HTML files

    You can’t place the HTML snippet into non-HTML files such as PDFs or images. X‑Robots-Tag is the only way.

    The following snippet (on an Apache server) would configure noindex HTTP headers on all PDF files on the site.

    <Files ~ "\.pdf$">
    Header set X-Robots-Tag "noindex"
    </Files>
    

    Applying directives at scale

    If you need to noindex a whole (sub)domain, subdirectory, pages with certain parameters or anything else that requires bulk editing, use x‑robots-tags. It’s easier.

    HTTP header modifications can be matched against URLs and file names using regular expressions. Complex bulk editing in HTML using the search and replace function would usually require more time and computing power.

    Traffic from search engines other than Google

    Google supports both meta robots tags and x‑robots-tags, but this isn’t the case for all search engines.

    For example, Seznam, a Czech search engine only supports robots meta tags. If you want to control how this search engine crawls and indexes your pages, using x‑robots-tags won’t work. You need to use the HTML snippets.

    How to avoid crawlability and (de)indexation mistakes

    You want to show all valuable pages, avoid duplicate content, issues and keep specific pages out of the index. If you manage a huge website then crawl budget management is another thing to pay attention to.

    Let’s have a look at the most common mistakes people make regarding robots directives.

    Mistake #1: Adding noindex directives to pages disallowed in robots.txt

    Never disallow crawling of content that you’re trying to get deindexed in robots.txt. Doing so prevents search engines from recrawling the page and discovering the noindex directive.

    If you feel you may have made that mistake in the past, crawl your site with Ahrefs Site Audit. Look for pages with “Noindex page receives organic traffic” errors.

    Screenshot 2019 09 22 at 23.54.19 1

    Noindexed pages that receive organic traffic are clearly still indexed. If you didn’t add the noindex tag recently, chances are this is due to a crawl block in your robots.txt file. Check for issues and fix them as appropriate.

    Mistake #2: Bad sitemaps management

    If you’re trying to get content deindexed using a meta robots tag or x‑robots-tag, don’t remove it from your sitemap until it’s been successfully deindexed. Otherwise, Google may be slower to recrawl the page.

    To potentially speed up the deindexing process further, set the lastmod date in your sitemap to the date you added the noindex tag. This encourages recrawling and reprocessing.

    Sidenote.
     John is talking about 404 pages here. That said, we’re assuming that this also makes sense for other changes like when you add or remove a noindex directive.
    IMPORTANT NOTE

    Don’t include noindexed pages in your sitemap in the long-term. Once content has been deindexed, remove it from your sitemap.

    If you’re worried that old, successfully deindexed content may still exist in your sitemap, check the “Noindex page sitemap” error in Ahrefs Site Audit.

    Screenshot 2019 09 23 at 00.23.07 1

    Mistake #3: Not removing noindex directives from the production environment

    Preventing robots from crawling and indexing anything in the staging environment is a good practice. However, it sometimes gets pushed into production, forgotten, and your organic traffic plunges.

    Even worse, the organic traffic drop might not be that noticeable if you’re involved in a site migration using 301 redirects. If the new URLs contain the noindex directive or are disallowed in robots.txt, you’ll still receive organic traffic from the old ones for some time. It can take Google up to a few weeks to deindex the old URLs.

    Whenever there are such changes on your website, keep an eye on the “Noindex page” warnings in Ahrefs Site Audit:

    ahrefs internalpages 1

    To help prevent similar issues in the future, enrich the dev team’s checklist with instructions for removing disallow rules from robots.txt and noindex directives before pushing to production.

    Mistake #4: Adding “secret” URLs to robots.txt instead of noindexing them

    Developers often try to hide pages about upcoming promotions, discounts, or product launches by disallowing access to them in the site’s robots.txt file. This is bad practice because humans can still view a robots.txt file. As such, these pages are easily leaked.

    Fix this by keeping “secret” pages out of robots.txt and noindexing them instead.

    Final thoughts

    Properly understanding and managing the crawling and indexing of your website is the cornerstone of SEO. Technical SEO can be quite complicated, but robots meta tags are nothing to be afraid of.

    I hope that you’re now prepared to apply the best practices for long-term solutions at scale.

    Let me know on Twitter or in the comments if you have any questions.

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    Article stats

    • Referring domains 28
    • Organic traffic 273
    Data from Content Explorer tool.